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Endoscopy

Laparoscopy

Is a process in which a Telescope is introduced inside the abdominal cavity to look at the outside of the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and internal pelvic area. Laparoscopy can be used for both diagnostic and operative purposes. If an abnormal condition is detected during the diagnostic procedure, operative laparoscopy can often be performed to correct it at the same time, avoiding the need for a second surgery.

Most women recover quickly from this procedure and can go home on the same day in cases of diagnostic procedure. If an operative laparoscopic surgical procedure is performed than the women needs to stay overnight or few extra days for the full recovery.

Risks of Laparoscopy

Serious complications of diagnostic and operative laparoscopy are rare. Postoperative bladder infection and skin irritation are most common. Adhesions are very likely to develop. Pelvic or abdominal infections may occur. Certain conditions may increase the risk of serious complications. These include previous abdominal surgery, especially bowel surgery, and a history or presence of bowel/pelvic adhesions, severe endometriosis, pelvic infections, obesity, or excessive thinness.

Postoperative Care

Following laparoscopy, the navel area (belly button) is usually tender and the abdomen may be bruised. Gas used to distend the abdomen may cause discomfort in the shoulders, chest, and abdomen, and anesthesia can cause nausea and dizziness.

HYSTEROSCOPY

Hysteroscopy is a useful procedure to evaluate women with infertility, recurrent miscarriage, or abnormal uterine bleeding. Diagnostic hysteroscopy is used to examine the uterine cavity and is helpful in diagnosing abnormal uterine conditions such as fibroids protruding into the uterine cavity, scarring, polyps, and congenital malformations.

The first step of diagnostic hysteroscopy usually involves slightly stretching the canal of the cervix with a series of dilators to temporarily increase the size of the opening. Once the cervix is dilated, the hysteroscopy (Telescope-like instrument) is inserted through the cervix and into the uterus. Skin incisions are not required for hysteroscopy. special fluids are then injected into the uterus through the hysteroscope. This fluid expands the uterine cavity and enables the physician to directly view the internal structure of the uterus. Diagnostic hysteroscopy is an outpatient procedure. It is often performed soon after menstruation has ended because the uterine cavity is more easily evaluated.

OPERATIVE HYSTEROSCOPY

Operative hysteroscopy can treat many of the abnormalities found during diagnostic hysteroscopy. Operative hysteroscopy is similar to diagnostic hysteroscopy except that narrow instruments are placed into the uterine cavity through a channel in the operative hysteroscope. Fibroids, scar tissue, and polyps can be removed from inside the uterus. Some structural abnormalities, such as a uterine septum, may be corrected through the hysteroscope. Antibiotics and/or estrogen may be prescribed after some types of uterine surgery to prevent infection and stimulate healing of the endometrium.

Risks of Hysteroscopy

Complications of hysteroscopy occur in about two out of every 100 procedures. Perforation of the uterus (a small hole in the uterus) is the most common complication. Although perforations usually close spontaneously, they may cause bleeding or result in damage to nearby organs, which may require further surgery. Uterine cavity adhesions or infections may develop after hysteroscopy. Serious complications related to the fluids used to distend the uterus include fluid in the lungs, blood clotting problems, fluid overload, electrolyte imbalance, and severe allergic reactions. Severe or life-threatening complications, however, are very uncommon. Some of the complications above may prevent completion of the surgery.

Postoperative Care

Following hysteroscopy, some vaginal discharge or bleeding and cramping may be experienced for several days. Most physical activities can usually be resumed within one or two days. You should ask your physician when to resume sexual intercourse. Estrogen may be prescribed for several weeks after surgery.

CONCLUSION

Laparoscopy and hysteroscopy allow physicians to diagnose and correct many gynecologic disorders on an outpatient basis. Patient recovery time is brief and significantly less than the recovery time from abdominal surgery through larger incisions. Before undergoing laparoscopy or hysteroscopy, patients should discuss with their physicians any concerns about the procedures and their risks.